Both humans and society are mutually complementary and students are an integral part of it. Without one, the stability of the other is not possible. Student power is one of the factors that improve and strengthen Student Movements in India. That is why it is said that youth are the backbone of the country, on whose shoulders the future of the country rests.
Brief history of student movements in India
The student movement in India can be studied in three broad stages, which are discussed below:
Student Movement : Pre-independence period
1. In 1848, Dadabhai Naoroji founded the Student’s scientific and historic society as a student forum. This platform is considered to be the source of the student movement in India.
2. In 1913, for the first time in Indian history, students went on strike at King Edward Medical College, Lahore to protest against academic discrimination between English students and Indians.
3. The scope of the student movement widened further between 1906 and 1918, when 68 out of 184 students were found to be engaged in revolutionary activities.
4. Swadeshi Movement (1905): This movement gave uniformity to Indian students and gave a revolutionary approach to student power. In order to show uniformity among the Indian students, the boycott of British goods, student club along with colleges was mass boycotted.
5. In 1912, the All India College Students' Conference of Ahmedabad took the oath of student commitment to work for India's independence and gave the slogan 'First Charkha Swaraj and then Education'.
6. The Indian Christian Movement (SCM) was launched in 1912 against Western colonialism with the aim of orienting students of Christianity through social realities.
7. In 1919, Indian students intensified the movement by boycotting schools and colleges during the Non-Cooperation Movement.
8. Hindu Students Association (HSF) started in 1936 with the ideology of RSS. This branch of the student directly advocated the sentiments of Hindu youth from its inception. This student organization did not participate in the freedom struggle.
9. In 1936, the first All India Students Conference was held in Lucknow consisting of 986 student representatives from 210 local and 11 provincial organizations from Punjab, UP, CP, Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Orissa.
10. The Muslim League established the All India Muslim Students Federation in 1937 to resolve the grievances of Muslim students and wanted to give a new direction to the demand for a separate state for Muslims by this student organization. Was. This student organization did not participate in the independence movement.
11. After the non-cooperation movement, the Quit India movement got the support of Indian students. During the movement, students mostly managed to close the colleges and incorporate most of the leadership responsibilities and provided the link between underground leaders and the movement.
12. Scheduled Caste Federation was a political party that represented the Scheduled Caste people. It was founded by Dr.Baba Saheb Ambedkar in 1942 to fight for the right of the Dalit community.
13. Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP) was established in 1949 to mobilize student power towards the task of national reconstruction.
14. The All India Catholic University Federation (AICUF) was established in 1949 with the aim of providing faith orientation for the Catholic Church students through socialization.
15. Prior to 1950, the student activism of the Indian National Congress was carried out by the youth wing of the AICC.
16. The All India Youth Federation was established by the Communist Party of India in 1959 as a united platform for the progressive and democratic section of the younger generation.
17. Naxalite Movement: It was launched in 1967 to protest feudal exploitation by Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal, and Jungle Santhal. After this, the uniformity of the students made it even more revolutionary, which is seen even today as a spoiled form.
18. The Dashauli Gram Swaraj Sangh, led by Chandi Prasad Bhatt, started a campaign in Gopeshwar in 1960 to employ local people near its hometown by setting up a forest-based small scale industry.
19. In 1961, the republic youth association started the first Dalit movement after independence to provide protection to Scheduled Castes and against casteism.
20. Student Federation of India: In 1970, CPI (M) established students to fight a democratic and progressive education system, for the advancement and improvement of the student community.
21. National Student Union of India (NSUI): It was founded by Indira Gandhi on 9 April 1971 after the merger of Kerala Students Union and West Bengal State Chhatra Parishad to form a national student organization.
22. Chipko Movement (started in 1973): It was an environment-protection movement. This was done by farmers in Uttarakhand state of India (then part of Uttar Pradesh) to protest against the felling of trees. The movement started under the leadership of India's famous environmentalists Sundarlal Bahuguna, Chandiprasad Bhatt and Mrs. Gauradevi. One of the main things of this movement was that women and students participated in large numbers in it.
23. Vidharaba Republican Students Federation was established to follow the path initiated by Lord Buddha and adopt and propagate the ethics adopted by Ambedkar.
24. Movement during Emergency: In 1974, student movement started against the Emergency. Meanwhile, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad and Samajwadi students, for the first time, opposed the Emergency by forming a Jute Student Conflict Committee. Whose Lalu Prasad Yadav was elected president and Sushil Kumar Modi was elected general secretary. During the Emergency protests many students were brutally beaten and jailed. Jai Prakash Narayan, the new leader of the Emergency Movement without leadership, was invited by the students and after that he gave the slogan of 'Complete revolution'.
25. Anti-Mandal Movement: This movement was started by upper caste students when VP Singh government announced the implementation of Mandal Commission Report in 1990. This student movement was organized in a very organized way. The main demand of the movement was to remove reservation on caste and to support reservation on the basis of economic considerations.
The Era of Globalization and liberalization
In this era, student politics was confined to ideologies as students were becoming slaves not for the welfare of political students but political organizations such as leftist students and right wing students etc. Beyond these ideological student politics, it was the only Dalit movement that emerged due to the postmodern scenario.
25. Mahila Student Movement: This was the first time since independence when in 1990 a group of women from Sanskrit College, Pattambi came forward to address the problem of women on campus.
26. Cyber activist student movement: this movement was started by the engineering students of NIIT Calicut against the monopoly of the MicroSoft Corporation in the software industry. Also called the 'Free Software Movement' it was the creative resistance of professional college students against globalization.
27. All India Students Association was founded in 1990 by CPI (ML).
The changing times changed the nature of the students' politics and movement as the early student movement was focused on schools, courses and educational funds; Then their inclination shifted towards the struggle for independence of India and now they are left only as puppets in the hands of political organizations.