The era of the Gupta Empire is called the Golden Age of India, because during this period, there were extensive inventions and discoveries in the fields of science, technology, engineering, art, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that have influenced Hindu culture. Enlightened the elements. Here we are presenting a brief description of Gupta Empire which is very useful for the students preparing for competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS and Railways.
Gupta Period : a brief description
The era of the Gupta Empire is called the Golden Age of India, because during this period, there were extensive inventions and discoveries in the fields of science, technology, engineering, art, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that have influenced Hindu culture. Enlightened the elements.
The Gupta Period came to power around 275 AD. The establishment of the Gupta Empire symbolizes the domination of the provincial powers for 500 years and the end of the unrest created as a result of the decline of the Mauryan Empire.
Genealogy of Gupta Empire
• It established the Gupta dynasty in the third century AD.
He assumed the title of “Maharaj”.
• It was the successor of Shreegupta.
• He also held the title of “Maharaj”.
Chandragupta I (319-334 AD)
He assumed the title of “Maharajadhiraja”.
• It started the “Gupta Samvat” in 319 AD, which symbolizes his coronation.
He married Lichchavi’s princess “Kumaradevi” and started a matrimonial alliance that helped her establish control in parts of Bihar and Nepal.
Samudragupta (335–380 AD)
Due to his extensive military conquests, VA Smith called him “Napoleon of India”.
• During his southern campaign “Veersen” was his commander.
• The famous Buddhist scholar “Vasubandhu” was his minister.
• Useful source of information related to his various campaigns is “Eran Inscription” (Madhya Pradesh).
He was a follower of Brahmin religion and a devotee of Lord Vishnu. He allowed the King of Sri Lanka “Meghvarman” to build a monastery in Bodh Gaya.
He held the titles of “Vikramank” and “Kaviraj”.
Chandragupta II (380-412 AD)
• There was a congregation of nine scholars in his court which was called “Navratna”. These scholars were Kalidas, Amarsingh, Dhanvantari, Varahamihira, Varruchi, Ghatkarpar, Kshatanak, Velbhatta and Shank.
• During his reign, Fahian” came to India.
He assumed the title of “Vikramaditya”.
• He was the first Gupta ruler to run silver coins.
He defeated a king named “Chandra” who is mentioned in an iron pillar set up near Qutub Minar in Delhi.
• Some historians believe that Ramgupta became king during the reigns of Samudragupta and Chandragupta II. In the play “Devichandragupta” composed by Visakhadatta, Ramgupta is described as Chandragupta II’s elder brother.
• He rescued “Dhruvadevi” from the Shaka rulers and later married her.
Kumaragupta I (413-467 AD)
• He was the son of Dhruvadevi who expanded the Gupta Empire from North Bengal to Kathiawad and from the Himalayas to Narmada.
• During his reign, the Huns invaded India.
He founded the “Nalanda University”.
Skandagupta (455-467 AD)
• He drove the cruel Huns twice and assumed the title of ‘Vikramaditya’ due to his heroic achievement, which is mentioned in “Inner Pillar Edict”.
He was a Vaishnavite, but he followed a policy of tolerance like his predecessors.
Administration of Gupta Empire
• During the Gupta period all the powers were concentrated with the king. The doctrine of divinity was also prevalent among the Gupta rulers.
• The kings held the titles of “Parameshwara”, “Maharajadhiraj” and “Parambhattaraka”. In this period, the rule was hereditary but the prerogative was not prevalent.
• Gupta rulers had a huge army.
• “Forced laborers” or “Vishti” were also included in the royal army.
• The king acted as sutradhar and omnipotent and normally decided all disputes. Minor punishment was used in this period.
• A council of ministers and civil officials were also assit the king.
• The “Kumaramatya” is one of the most important officers in the Gupta Empire.
• The symbol of “Garuda” was inscribed on the royal seal of the Gupta Empire. In the Deccan, “land grants” introduced by the Satavahanas and fiscal administrative concessions to priests and administrators were regularly introduced in the Gupta period.
• During the reign of Samudragupta, a new term “Sandhivigraha” was created which was responsible for war and peace. This designation was given to “Harisen”.
Art and architecture during the Gupta Empire
• The most notable pillar of this period is the “monolithic columnar” of Skandagupta’s “Bhirgaon”.
• In this period, the “Nagar” and “Dravid” styles of art were born.
• “Gandhara art” was absent in this period.
• But there is evidence of the presence of Greek style “from a statue of Buddha in standing position” from Mathura.
• The influence of Gupta art is clearly visible in the idols of the temple of “Devgarh” near Jhansi and the temple of “Garhwas” near Allahabad.
• The “sitting Buddha statue” from Sarnath is a symbol of the Gupta art.
• Most of the paintings depicted in Bagh caves near Gwalior show the greatness and grandeur of Gupta art.
• Most of the paintings of Ajanta depict the life of Buddha.
• The great poet and playwright Kalidas was the courtier of Chandragupta II. His masterpiece is the play “Abhigyanasakuntalam”. His other plays include “Malavikagnimitram”, Vikramorvashivayam “and” Kumarasambhava “. Apart from this, he also composed two epics named “Rithasanakshya” and “Meghdoot”.
• During the Gupta period, metallurgy also shows significant influence. Artisans were adept at manufacturing metal sculptures and pillars.
• The most ancient statue is the huge copper statue of Buddha obtained from Sultanganj. It is currently housed in the Birmingham Museum. The height of this idol is seven and a half feet and weighs one ton. The Gupta iron pillar of Delhi is still rustless.
• Gold, silver and copper coins are also issued by Chandragupta II and his successors.
Samudragupta was a great poet. Samudragupta patronized a famous scholar named “Harisen”.
• Writers of “Kavyadarsha” and “Daskumarcharit” were punished in his regin.
• Subandhu wrote a book called “Vasavadatta”.
• Another famous writer of this period was “Visakhadatta”. His two famous plays are “Mudrarakshas” and “Devichandragupta”.
• During the Gupta period, “Panchatantra” stories were compiled by “Vishnusharma”.
• Another famous poet of this period was “Shudraka” who wrote a play called “Mruchkatikam”.
• In this period, “Kiratajurniyam” composed by Bharavi describes the dialogues between “Arjuna” and “Shiva”.
• The Buddhist writer “Amarsingh” wrote a book called “Amarkosh”.