What are PM2.5 and PM10 and how do they affect health?

Due to increasing number of vehicles and decreasing number of trees, the type and pollution of pollution is increasing every year. Air pollution reaches very dangerous levels in cities like Delhi. This is because the PM 2.5 and PM 10 particles present in the air. These particles cause great harm to everyone’s health. When the level of these particles increases in the air, there is difficulty in breathing, irritation in the eyes, etc. Let us study through this article What are PM2.5 and PM10 and how do they affect health?

The problem of pollution in human life is increasing day by day. As human is developing this problem is also increasing. It would not be wrong to say that the speed with which pollution has increased, the existence of human life has been questioned.

Everyone is worried about the damage caused by it. People have to face a lot of problems due to pollution, such as irritation in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, asthma attack, etc.

Let us study through this article how PM i.e. particulate matter which are small particles present in air affect health. What is the difference with the pollution on these particles.

What are PM2.5 and PM10 ?

PM is also called Particulate Matter or Particle pollution, which is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets present in the atmosphere. The particles present in the air are so small that you cannot see even with the naked eye. Some particles are so small that they can only be detected using an electron microscope. Particle pollution includes PM 2.5 and PM 10 which are very dangerous.

PM 2.5 refers to atmospheric particulate matter that has a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, which is about 3% of the diameter of a human hair.

Commonly written as PM2.5, the particles in this range are so small that they can only be detected with the help of an electron microscope. They are smaller than their PM10 counterparts. PM10 are particles whose diameter is 10 micrometres and they are also called fine particles. Environmental experts say that PM 10 is also called responsive particulate matter.

It contains dust, grime and fine particles of metal. PM10 and 2.5 dust grow at the site of constructions and more than burning garbage and straw.

Let us tell you that air is considered safe to breathe only when the amount of PM2.5 is 60 and PM10 is 100.

Sources of Particulate Matter

Perticulate matter is of different sizes and may be due to both human and natural sources. Sources can be primary and secondary. Primary sources include automobile emissions, dust, and cooking smoke. Secondary sources of pollution can be complex reactions to chemicals such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. These particles get mixed in the air and pollute it. Apart from these, forest fires, wood burning stoves, agricultural burning, industry smoke, dust from construction works, air pollution etc. are sources.

Health effects of PM2.5 and PM10

Both PM2.5 and PM10 particles are so small that you cannot see through your naked eye and they act as gas. When you breathe, these particles get into your lungs, which can read cough and asthma attacks. There is a risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke and many more serious diseases, which can also result in premature death. Do you know that when the level of PM2.5 is high, the mist increases and the cleanliness also decreases. Children and the elderly have the worst effect of increasing the level of air in these particles.

Some other diseases that have an impact on health are:

– breathing problem

– Eyes, nose and throat irritation

– Chest Stretch

   – Lungs not working properly

– Severe respiratory disease

– Irregular heartbeat and etc.

Who is most threatened by these particles?

Everyone needs air to breathe and by breathing the polluted air they are exposed to air pollution. A study says that the risk of air pollution is higher in urban and industrial areas than in rural areas. In addition, children and senior citizens are likely to be severely affected by exposure to air pollution. People with heart and lung disease can be at great risk from air pollution.

The American Heart Association has also warned about the effect of PM2.5 on heart health and mortality:

Exposure to PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years. ”

How to prevent air pollution?

– People should use masks to avoid the problem of air pollution or polluted air and should consult a doctor in case of difficulty.

– Avoid exercising outdoors when pollution levels are high.

Do not burn wood or thrash as these are the main source of particulate pollution.

– Do not smoke both indoor and outdoor.

– To protect your indoor space from air pollution, you can also use an air purifier. An air purifier can reduce the rate of air pollution inside your home.

– If air pollution lasts for several days, consider going to an unaffected place.

Do you know what the level of PM2.5 and PM10 in air should be?

The PM10 level should normally be 100 micro gram cubic meter and PM2.5 level 60 micro gram cubic meter.

As we now know that the level of PM2.5 and PM10 in the air increases, ie the increase of air pollution. This increases the chances of getting diseases. So we should take precaution such as using masks etc.

Akash Sangule

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